English Instructor, Spelling


Home
| ESL | Write & Publish | Halderman Photographs | Real International Stories | Music | Textbooks| anthonyhalderman.com | Halderman Award | E-mail

divider.gif (1693 bytes)

 

 

Some Basic Spelling Rules

1.) SPELLING RULES FOR THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE

a.) Add –ing to the base form of the verb.
read - reading, stand - standing, jump - jumping

b.) If a verb ends in a silent –e, drop the final -e and add –ing.
leave - leaving, take - taking, receive - receiving

c.) In a one-syllable word, if the last three letters are consonant-vowel-consonant combination (CVC), double
the last consonant before adding –ing.
sit - sitting, run - running, hop - hopping

However, do not double the last consonant in word that end in w, x, or y.
sew - sewing, fix - fixing, enjoy - enjoying

d.) In words of two or more syllables that end in a consonant-vowel-consonant combination, double the last
consonant only if the last syllable is stressed.
admit - admitting, regret - regretting

e.) If a verb ends in –ie, change the –ie to y before adding -ing.
die - dying

2.) SPELLING RULES FOR THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

a.) Add –s for most verbs
work - works, buy - buys, ride - rides, return - returns

b.) Add –es for words that end in –ch, -s , -sh, -x, or –z.
watch - watches, pass - passes, rush - rushes, relax - relaxes, buzz - buzzes

c.) Change the –y to –i and add –es when the base form ends in a consonant +y.
study - studies, hurry - hurries, dry - dries

Do not change the –y when the base form ends in a vowel +y. Add –s
play - plays, enjoy - enjoys

d.) A few verbs have irregular forms.
be - is, do - does, go- goes, have - has

3.) SPELLING RULES FOR SIMPLE PAST TENSE OF REGULAR VERBS

a.) If the verb ends in a consonant, add –ed.
return - returned, help - helped, cook - cooked

b.) If the verb ends in –e, add –d.
live - lived, create - created, die - died

c.) In one-syllable words, if the verb ends in a consonant-vowel-consonant combination (CVC), double the
last consonant and add -ed.
hop - hopped, rub - rubbed

However, do not double one-syllable words ending in –w, -x, or –y.

bow - bowed, play - played, mix - mixed

d.) In words of two or more syllables that end in consonant-vowel-consonant combination, double the last
consonant only if the last syllable is stressed.
prefer - preferred (The last syllable is stressed.) visit - visited (The last syllable isn’t stressed)

e.) If the verb ends in a consonant, + y, change the -y to -i and –ed.
worry - worried, copy - copied

f.) If the verb ends in a vowel +y, add -ed. (Do not change the –y to –i.)
play - played, annoy - annoyed

Exception: pay - paid, lay - laid, say - said

4.) SPELLING RULES FOR THE COMPARATIVE (-ER) & SUPERLATIVES (-EST) ADJECTIVES

a.) Add –er to one-syllable adjectives to form the comparative. Add -est to one-syllable adjectives to form the superlative.
cheap - cheaper - cheapest, bright - brighter - brightest

b.) If the adjective ends in –e, add –r or –st.
nice - nicer - nicest

c.) If the adjective ends in a consonant +y, change to y to i before you add –er or –est.
pretty - prettier - prettiest. Exception: shy - shyer - shyest

d.) If the adjective ends in a consonant-vowel-consonant combination (CVC), double the final consonant
before adding –er or –est.
big - bigger - biggest

However, do not double the consonant in words ending in –w or –y.

slow - slower - slowest, coy - coyer - coyest

 5.) SPELLING RULES FOR ADVERBS

a.) Add –ly to the corresponding adjectives
nice - nicely, quiet - quietly, quick - quickly, beautiful - beautifully

  1. If the adjective ends in consonant +y, change the y to i before adding –ly
    easy - easily
  2. If the adjective ends in –le, drop the -e and add –y.
    possible - possibly

However, do not drop the –e for other adjectives ending in –e.
extreme - extremely, Exception: true - truly

d.) If the adjective ends in –ic, add -ally.
basic - basically, fantastic - fantastically, terrific - terrifically

 

Home | ESL | Write & Publish | Halderman Photographs | Real International Stories | Music | Textbooks| anthonyhalderman.com | Halderman Award | E-mail